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Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, [1] design documents, [2] or content of the product.

The open-source model is a decentralized software development model that приведу ссылку open collaboration. The open-source movement dree software began as a response to the limitations of proprietary code.

The model is used for projects such as in open-source appropriate technology[5] and open-source drug discovery. Open source promotes universal access via an open-source or 22017 license to a product’s design or blueprint, and universal redistribution of that design or blueprint. Open source gained hold with the rise of the Internet. Generally, open source refers to a computer program in which the source code is available to the general public for use or modification from sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free original design.

Code is released under the terms of a software license. Depending on the license terms, others may then download, modify, and publish their version fork back to the community. Many large formal institutions have sprung up to support the development of the open-source movement, including the Apache Software Foundationwhich supports community projects such as the open-source framework Apache Hadoop and the open-source HTTP server Apache HTTP.

The sharing of technical information predates the Sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free and the personal computer considerably. For instance, in the early years of automobile development a group of capital monopolists owned the rights to a 2-cycle gasoline-engine patent originally filed by George B.

Inindependent automaker Henry Ford won a challenge to the Selden patent. The result was that the Selden patent became virtually worthless and a new association which would eventually become the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association was formed. Early instances of the free sharing of source sketchpu include IBM ‘s source releases of its operating systems and other programs in the s and s, and the SHARE user group that formed to facilitate the exchange of software.

This led to the birth of the early Internet sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free BSDfor example, was first widely distributed by aketchup to comp. Linux followed in this model. The term “open source,” as related to “free” software, was in common use by It was later proposed by a group of people in the free software movement who were critical of the political agenda and moral philosophy implied in the term “free software” fere sought to reframe the discourse to reflect a more commercially minded position.

Peterson suggested “open source” at a meeting [19] held at Palo Alto, Californiain reaction to Netscape ‘s announcement in January of a source code release for Navigator. Richard Stallmanthe founder of the free software movement, initially seemed to adopt the term, but later changed his sketxhup. Raymond was rree active in the effort to popularize the new term. He made the first public call to the free software community to adopt it in February The term gained further visibility through an event organized in April by technology publisher Tim O’Reilly.

At that meeting, alternatives to the term “free software” were discussed. Tiemann argued for “sourceware” as a new term, while Raymond так microsoft word 2013 insert glossary free download другой for “open source.

Some economists agree that open-source is an information good [25] or “knowledge good” with original work involving a significant amount of time, money, and effort. The cost of reproducing the work is low enough that additional users may be added at zero or near zero cost — this is referred to as the marginal cost of a product. Copyright creates a monopoly so that the price charged to consumers sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free be significantly higher than the marginal cost of production.

This allows the author to recoup the cost of making the original work. Copyright thus creates access costs for consumers who value the work more than the marginal cost sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free less than the initial production cost.

Access costs also pose problems for authors who wish to create a derivative work —such as a copy of sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free software 201 modified to fix a bug or add a feature, or a remix of a song—but are unable or unwilling to pay the copyright holder for the right to do so. Being organized as effectively a ” consumers’ cooperative “, 2107 source eliminates some of the access costs of consumers and creators of derivative works by reducing the restrictions of copyright.

Basic economic theory predicts that lower costs would lead to higher consumption and also more frequent creation of derivative works. Organizations such as Creative Commons host websites where individuals can file for alternative “licenses”, or levels of restriction, for their works.

Others argue that since consumers do not pay for their copies, creators are unable to recoup the initial cost of production and thus have little economic incentive to create in the first place. By this argument, consumers would lose out because some of the goods they would otherwise purchase would not be available. In practice, content producers can choose whether to adopt a proprietary license and charge for copies, or an open license. Some goods which require large amounts of professional research and development, such as the pharmaceutical industry which depends largely on patentsnot copyright for intellectual property protection are almost exclusively proprietary, although increasingly sophisticated technologies are being developed on open-source principles.

Pdo sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free evidence that open-source development creates enormous value. RepRap 3D printers can sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free the product for the cost of materials. Many sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free source projects have a high economic value.

The rank given is based on the activity regarding projects in online discussions, on GitHub, on search activity in search engines and on the influence on the labour market.

Alternative arrangements have also been shown to result in good creation outside of the proprietary license model. Examples include: [ citation needed ]. The open-source model is a decentralized software development model that encourages open collaboration[3] [32] meaning “any system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants who interact to create a product or service of economic value, which they make available to contributors and noncontributors alike.

The open-source model for software development inspired the use of the term to refer to other forms of open collaboration, such as in Internet forums[8] mailing lists [33] and online communities. Open collaboration is the principle underlying peer production prk, mass collaborationand wikinomics. It also explains some instances of crowdsourcingcollaborative consumptionand open innovation. Riehle et al. For example, all of the elements — goods of economic value, open access to contribute and consume, interaction and exchange, purposeful yet loosely coordinated work — are present in an open source software project, in Wikipedia, or in a user forum or community.

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They can also be present in a commercial website that is based on user-generated content. In all of these instances of open collaboration, anyone can contribute and anyone can freely partake in the fruits of sharing, which are produced by interacting participants who are loosely coordinated.

An annual conference dedicated to the research and practice of open collaboration is sketcgup International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration OpenSym, formerly WikiSym. Open source oro hold in part due to the rise of the Internet. An open-source license is a type of license for computer software and other products that allows the source codeblueprint or design to be used, modified or shared with or without modification under defined terms and conditions.

Open-source licensed software is mostly available free of charge, though this does not necessarily have to be the case. Licenses which only permit non-commercial redistribution or modification of the source code for personal use only are generally not considered as open-source licenses. However, open-source licenses may have some restrictions, particularly 217 the expression of respect to the origin of software, such as a requirement to preserve the name of windows server 2012 install security free download authors and a copyright statement within the code, or a requirement to redistribute the licensed software only under the same license as in a copyleft license.

Social and political views have been affected by the growth of the sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free of open source. Advocates in one field often support the expansion of open source in other fields. But Eric Raymond and other founders of the open-source movement have sometimes publicly argued against speculation about applications outside software, saying that strong arguments for software openness should not be weakened by overreaching into areas where the story may be less compelling.

The broader impact of the open-source movement, and the extent of its role in sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free development of new information sharing procedures, remain to be seen. The open-source movement has sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free increased transparency and liberty in biotechnology research, for example CAMBIA [42] Even the research methodologies themselves can benefit from the application of open-source principles. Open-source software is software which source code здесь published and перейти на страницу available to the public, enabling anyone to copy, modify and redistribute the source code without paying royalties or fees.

These communities are composed of individual programmers as well as large companies. Some of the individual programmers who start an open-source project may end up s,etchup companies offering products or services incorporating open-source programs. Open-source hardware is hardware which initial specification, usually in a software format, is published and made available to the public, enabling anyone to copy, modify and redistribute the hardware and source code without paying royalties download pro free premiere gratis cs5 adobe descargar fees.

Open-source hardware sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free through community cooperation. Examples of open-source hardware initiatives are:. Some publishers of open-access journals have argued that data from food science and gastronomy studies should be freely available to aid reproducibility. An open-source robot is a robot whose blueprints, schematics, or source code are released under an open-source model.

For example, “being free to speak” is not pri same as “free beer”. Generally, open source refers to a computer program in which the source code odf available to the general public for sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free for any including commercial purpose, or modification from its original design. Open-source code is meant to be a collaborative effort, where programmers improve upon the source code and share the changes within the community.

The rise of open-source culture in the 20th century resulted from a growing tension sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free creative practices that involve require access to content that is often copyrightedand restrictive intellectual property laws and policies pdd access to copyrighted content.

The two main ways in which intellectual property laws became more restrictive in the 20th century were extensions to sketcjup term of copyright particularly in the United States and penalties, such as those articulated sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free the Digital Millennium Copyright Act DMCAplaced on attempts to circumvent anti-piracy technologies.

Although artistic appropriation is often permitted under fair-use doctrines, the complexity and ambiguity of these doctrines creates an atmosphere of uncertainty among cultural practitioners.

Also, the protective actions of copyright owners create what sketfhup call a ” chilling effect ” among cultural practitioners. The idea of an “open-source” culture runs parallel to ” Free Culture ,” but is substantively different. Free culture is a term derived from the free software movementand in contrast to that vision of culture, proponents of open-source culture OSC maintain that some intellectual property law needs to exist sketchpu protect cultural producers.

Yet they propose a more nuanced position than corporations have traditionally sought. Instead of seeing intellectual property law as an expression of instrumental rules sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free to uphold either natural rights or sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free outcomes, an argument for OSC takes into account diverse goods as in “the Good life” and sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free. Sites such as ccMixter offer up free web space for anyone willing to license sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free work under a Creative Commons license.

The resulting cultural product is then available to download free generally accessible to anyone with an Internet connection. Through various technologies such as peer-to-peer networks and blogs skefchup, cultural producers can take advantage of vast social networks to distribute their products. As opposed to traditional media distribution, redistributing digital media on the Internet can be virtually costless. Irish philosopher Richard Kearney has used the term “open-source Hinduism ” to refer to the way historical figures such as Mohandas Gandhi and Swami Vivekananda worked upon this ancient tradition.

Open-source journalism formerly referred to the standard journalistic techniques of news gathering and fact checking, reflecting open-source intelligencea similar term used in military intelligence circles. Now, open-source journalism commonly refers to forms of innovative publishing of online journalismrather than the sourcing of news stories by a professional journalist. In the 25 December issue of TIME magazine this is referred to as user created content and listed alongside more traditional open-source projects such as OpenSolaris and Linux.

Weblogsor sketdhup, are another significant platform for open-source culture. Blogs consist of periodic, reverse chronologically ordered posts, using a technology that makes webpages easily updatable with no understanding of design, code, or file transfer required. Sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free corporations, political campaigns and other formal institutions have begun using these tools to distribute information, many blogs are used by individuals for personal expression, political organizing, and socializing.

Some, such as LiveJournal or WordPress ссылка на подробности, utilize каждого up and running with autodesk advance steel 2017 pdf free download поговорим software that is open to the public and can be modified by users to fit their own tastes.

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Whether the code is open http://replace.me/13064.txt not, this format represents a nimble tool for people to borrow and re-present culture; whereas traditional sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free made the illegal reproduction of culture difficult to regulate, the mutability of blogs makes “open sourcing” even more uncontrollable since it allows a larger portion of the population to replicate material more quickly in the public sphere.

Messageboards sketchup pro 2017 book pdf free another platform for open-source culture.



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Google itself was re-organized into a subsidiary of a larger holding company known as Alphabet Inc. Most of the firms acquired by Google are based in the United States, and, in turn, most of these are based in or around the San Francisco Bay Area. To date, Alphabet has divested itself of four [2] business units: Frommers , which was sold back to Arthur Frommer in April ; [3] SketchUp , which was sold to Trimble in April , [4] Boston Dynamics in early and Google Radio Automation, which was sold to WideOrbit in Many Google products originated as services provided by companies that Google has since acquired.

Similarly, Google acquired Dodgeball , a social networking service company, and eventually replaced it with Google Latitude. CEO Larry Page has explained that potential acquisition candidates must pass a sort of “toothbrush test”: Are their products potentially useful once or twice a day, and do they improve your life?

This purchase was made in part to help Google gain Motorola’s considerable patent portfolio on mobile phones and wireless technologies, to help protect Google in its ongoing patent disputes with other companies, [16] mainly Apple and Microsoft , [17] and to allow it to continue to freely offer Android. On January 26, , Google announced it had agreed to acquire DeepMind Technologies , a privately held artificial intelligence company from London. DeepMind describes itself as having the ability to combine the best techniques from machine learning and systems neuroscience to build general-purpose learning algorithms.

DeepMind’s first commercial applications were used in simulations, e-commerce and games. As of December , [update] it was reported that DeepMind had roughly 75 employees. A Google spokesman would not comment on the price.

As a part of this deal, Google acquired a Google retained all but of Motorola’s patents and entered into cross-licensing deals. In , Google sold off its satellite business, Terra Bella, to Planet Labs for an undisclosed price and entered into a multi-year agreement to license Earth imagery from the company. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness.

You can help by adding missing items with reliable sources. October 27, The New York Times. Retrieved December 7, Retrieved April 6, Retrieved May 6, August 5, Archived from the original on March 17, August 17, Retrieved August 18, AOL Inc. Retrieved July 29, Retrieved March 15, October 9, Thomson Reuters. Retrieved March 9, New York: The Penguin Press. ISBN The Washington Post. Retrieved August 17, Google Blog at Blogspot. CNet News.

BBC News. May 22, Retrieved May 23, CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 12, Retrieved January 27, Archived from the original on September 26, PC World. The Verge. Vox Media. Ziff Davis. February 12, Archived from the original on April 6, Retrieved May 10, The Register. Situation Publishing. Archived from the original on February 15, Retrieved April 4, December 14, Archived from the original on September 28, Search Engine Watch.

Archived from the original on January 18, Retrieved January 8, Search Engine Journal. June 4, April 23, Archived from the original on December 27, April 28, Retrieved May 5, Verizon Hearst Media Partners. Marketing Land. Retrieved July 3, SEO Consultants. Archived from the original on June 29, May 10, Archived from the original on March 25, Archived from the original on November 22, Archived from the original on February 2, March 28, May 12, November 17, January 10, August 16, Business Week.

Archived from the original on February 28, Archived from the original on January 13, Retrieved March 18, Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved March 19, Information Week. January 17, Archived from the original on April 1, Official Google Blog. February 14, March 9, March 14, Retrieved March 22, Archived from the original on January 8, University of California, Irvine. Archived from the original PDF on June 12, August 15, Retrieved April 2, Retrieved October 9, USA Today.

March 18, April 13, Retrieved April 17, April 19, Retrieved April 19, Economic Times. December 23, Archived from the original on August 12, Retrieved December 22, Digital Trends. Archived from the original on February 8, Retrieved June 1, The Age. June 2, June 5, Retrieved June 5, June 19, Official Google Voice Blog. March 12, Retrieved March 13, July 2, Retrieved July 2, Google LatLong Blog. July 20, Retrieved July 21, July 9, Archived from the original on February 26, YouTube Blog.

July 30, Archived from the original on March 7, Retrieved July 30, Archived from the original on May 14, Retrieved March 24, Business Insider. January 7, September 16, Retrieved September 16, Archived from the original on March 31, Retrieved June 16, PC Magazine. Ziff Davis Publishing Holdings Inc. Retrieved November 9, November 24, Retrieved November 28, December 4, Archived from the original on January 2, Retrieved December 4, Retrieved February 12, February 17, Retrieved February 17, March 1, Archived from the original on March 23, Retrieved March 1, May 13, Retrieved May 13, March 5, April 2, Archived from the original on July 10, Visual Search Engine Plink”.

April 12, Retrieved April 12, April 21, Archived from the original on May 24, Retrieved July 9, April 27, Archived from the original on June 12, Retrieved April 27, Bloomberg, L. Retrieved April 30, May 18, Retrieved May 20, Retrieved November 27, May 20, Retrieved February 25, May 21, Retrieved September 22, Media Memo — All Things Digital.

June 9, Semantic Web. Archived from the original on November 5, Artists Premium is an artistic and event agency specializing in artistic production and organization of shows. Our agency has a catalog of music bands and professional artists from authentic gospel in the African American style, reggae, jazz, soul, Pop, dance Gospel choir for concerts, weddings, and other events June 09, You are organizing an event and you want to listen to the real gospel?

Afro-American gospel: authentic gospel? You are at the right place! Your Gospel Team is a gospel choir, the first one in Switzerland, specialized in the animation of the weddings, concerts, The machine is in good working order. Detailed photos available on request. Perhaps you’d like to talk Very beautiful house “le Clos du chat tambour”, of m2 with basement, for sale on the Alabaster coast in Seine Maritime This house with a garden of m2, benefits from an exceptional location, quiet, 3km from the sea and 7 km from the city center Sell a living room coffee table made of exotic solid wood.

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This semi-precious wooden coffee table “Courbaril” was brought back from French Guiana in It is in very good condition and very rare, not to say not to be found in metropolitan France and even We also do tutoring from CP primary to baccalaureat’s grade.

The NIH’s move is an important one because there is significant amount of public funding in scientific research. Many of the questions have yet to be answered—the balancing of profit vs. Benjamin Franklin was an early contributor eventually donating all his inventions including the Franklin stove , bifocals , and the lightning rod to the public domain. New NGO communities are starting to use the open-source technology as a tool.

The Eclipse platform is openly presenting itself as an Open innovation network. Copyright protection is used in the performing arts and even in athletic activities. Some groups have attempted to remove copyright from such practices. This opera was originally composed and published in by Russian label MC Entertainment as a commercial product, but then the author changed its status to free. In his blog [98] he said that he decided to open raw files including wav, midi and other used formats to the public in order to support worldwide pirate actions against SOPA and PIPA.

Several Internet resources [99] [] [] [] called “” the first open-source musical opera in history. The following are events and applications that have been developed via the open source community , and echo the ideologies of the open source movement. Open Education Consortium — an organization composed of various colleges that support open source and share some of their material online.

This organization, headed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology , was established to aid in the exchange of open source educational materials. Wikipedia — user-generated online encyclopedia with sister projects in academic areas, such as Wikiversity — a community dedicated to the creation and exchange of learning materials [] [ failed verification ].

Project Gutenberg — prior to the existence of Google Scholar Beta, this was the first supplier of electronic books and the very first free library project [] [ failed verification ]. Synthetic Biology – This new technology is potentially important because it promises to enable cheap, lifesaving new drugs as well as helping to yield biofuels that may help to solve our energy problem.

Although synthetic biology has not yet come out of its “lab” stage, it has potential to become industrialized in the near future. In order to industrialize open source science, there are some scientists who are trying to build their own brand of it. The open-access movement is a movement that is similar in ideology to the open source movement. Members of this movement maintain that academic material should be readily available to provide help with “future research, assist in teaching and aid in academic purposes.

The free-culture movement is a movement that seeks to achieve a culture that engages in collective freedom via freedom of expression, free public access to knowledge and information, full demonstration of creativity and innovation in various arenas and promotion of citizen liberties. Creative Commons is an organization that “develops, supports, and stewards legal and technical infrastructure that maximizes digital creativity, sharing, and innovation.

Creative Commons provides an infrastructure through a set of copyright licenses and tools that creates a better balance within the realm of “all rights reserved” properties. The Zeitgeist Movement is an international social movement that advocates a transition into a sustainable “resource-based economy” based on collaboration in which monetary incentives are replaced by commons-based ones with everyone having access to everything from code to products as in “open source everything”.

P2P Foundation is an “international organization focused on studying, researching, documenting and promoting peer to peer practices in a very broad sense”. Its objectives incorporate those of the open source movement, whose principles are integrated in a larger socio-economic model.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Free access to software, information and materials as a concept. For a common use, see Open-source software , and for other uses, see Open source disambiguation.

Not to be confused with Open access. Main article: History of free and open-source software. Main article: Open-source economics. Further information: Business models for open-source software. Main article: Open-source license. Main article: Free and open-source software. Further information: Open research. Main article: Open-source robotics. Main article: Open-source software. Further information: Open-source software movement. Main article: Open-source religion.

Free and open-source software portal. Meta has related information at: Open-source. Scholia has a topic profile for Open source. Wikispecies has information related to Open-source. Open Source Org. Archived from the original on 11 June Retrieved 22 January Open source doesn’t just mean access to the source code. Diffingo Solutions Inc. Archived from the original on 28 October Open source software differers from other software because it has a less restrictive license agreement: Instead of using a restrictive license that prevents you from modifying the program or sharing it with friends for example, sharing and modifying open source software is encouraged.

Anyone who wishes to do so may distribute, modify or even create derivative works based on that source code! Organization Science. ISSN S2CID SSRN The cathedral and the bazaar: musings on Linux and Open Source by an accidental revolutionary. ISBN Environment, Development and Sustainability. ISSN X. Business Standard India — via Business Standard. June Research Policy. In Kotze, P.

ACM Press. CiteSeerX The Car Culture. MIT Press. IBM and the U. The Hyperlogos. Archived from the original on 15 March Stanford, CA: Stanford University: 34— The problem with it is twofold. Second, the term makes a lot of corporate types nervous.

Retrieved 10 February Public-domain software is written by microcomputer hobbyists also known as “hackers” many of whom are professional programmers in their work life. Open Source Initiative. Archived from the original on 1 October Retrieved 23 August Free Software Foundation. Open Source: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Imperial College Press. Retrieved 25 October Linux Gazette.

Archived from the original on 29 December Retrieved 7 February Archived from the original on 13 March Retrieved 23 December The economics and management of intellectual property : towards intellectual capitalism. Cheltenham, UK: E. Creative Commons. Archived from the original on 6 January Organization Science , 19 2 , doi : Knowledge Collaboration in Online Communities.

Organization Science , 22 5 , , doi : March IEEE Software. Archived from the original PDF on 8 October Retrieved 22 November The International Symposium on Open Collaboration. Archived from the original on 12 March Retrieved 26 March Open collaboration is collaboration that is egalitarian everyone can join, no principled or artificial barriers to participation exist , meritocratic decisions and status are merit-based rather than imposed and self-organizing processes adapt to people rather than people adapt to pre-defined processes.

The Success of Open Source. Harvard University Press. Retrieved 25 April Karl Michael Best Practices for commercial use of open source software. Norderstedt, Germany: Books on Demand. Archived from the original on 1 November Sustainability: The Journal of Record. Archived from the original on 28 April